Welcome to eClinPath, an online textbook on Veterinary Clinical Pathology

The goal of this site is to be an educational resource on veterinary clinical pathology – an “on-line” textbook as it were. We hope this will be a valuable resource, as are the several available paper textbooks on this discipline. We continually strive to update and modify the site and appreciate your feedback. Below under each section, we have added an update list. We will only use this major updates and changes, not minor things such as an addition or correction here or there, addition of a reference etc. Note that as we add new pages, we will be providing references (with links to PubMed etc) and as we update our old pages, we will also strive to add references to those (this will be a long term slow project, but bear with us).

The site is organized into sections as indicated by the tabs and top navigation bar (calculations, case of the month). Each section provides detailed information on related topics and is continually updated so keep checking (and stay tuned for more). All the information from our old site is here, much of which has been updated (those sections that are not updated will be in due course). Some sections have new information (e.g. test basics) but are still not to the point where we wish them to be. Our clinical pathology data calculators, cytology and exotics pages are definitely works in progress.

  • Atlas: This is a quick reference guide that provides various clinical pathologic images, including hematology (e.g. normal leukocytes and erythrocytes by species), urine sediment examination (e.g. crystals, cells), and cytology. We plan to add a lot more, so stay tuned. This section of the site is currently not searchable using the generic search tool, but this will change.
    • Update: Compilation of new world camelid blood cells and various images from sick camelids have been added to the hematology atlas (February 2016)
  • Case of the month: Challenge yourself with classic and interesting cases we have seen at Cornell University. Search our index for old cases! As for the Atlas, this section is currently not searchable through the generic search tool.
  • Calculations: This takes you to conversion formula (standard international to conventional units) and other clinical pathologic-related calculations, e.g. red blood cell indices (e.g. mean cell volume), reticulocyte counts (e.g. absolute reticulocyte count), fractional excretion of electrolytes (e.g. sodium). Under construction.
  • Test basics: Information on reference intervals, non-disease variables that impact test results (e.g. hemolysis, lipemia, icterus, including a table that summarizes common artifacts seen with laboratory tests). We plan to add sections on quality control concepts (accuracy, precision, bias) and statistical concepts important to clinical pathology (e.g. sensitivity, specificity). 
  • Hematology: Information on all aspects of hematology and is organized into sections based on cell types in blood (leukocytes, erythrocytes and platelets). See also the Atlas for image compilations.
    • Update: Modified the left shift and leukogram patterns pages (February 2016)
  • Hemostasis: Information on the physiology of hemostasis, clinical signs, diagnostic testing (including sample collection), hemostatic disorders and transfusion medicine.
    • Update: Added a small section on platelet production (February 2016).
    • Update: Added new pages on antithrombin and protein C (under inhibitor tests) and cleaned up related pages on inhibitors (February 2016)
  • Urinalysis: Information on urine production and urine components (chemicals, cells, casts, crystals). See also the Atlas for image compilations.
  • Chemistry: Information on sample collection, chemistry analytes (provided on most biochemical panels), techniques used to measure variables (e.g. potentiometry, electrophoresis) and organ function.
    • Update: Substantially modified cholestasis, liver function and portal blood flow pages with updates to the rest of the liver pages. Added a new page on laboratory detection of liver disease with images of hepatic lipidosis, RBC morphologic changes and ammonium biurate crystals (February 2016).
  • Cytology: Information on sample collection and expected cytologic findings with different processes. See also the atlas for image compilations. Under construction.
  • ExoticsClinical pathologic testing of exotic animal species (reptiles, amphibians, small mammals). Under construction.