Quick test interpretation

 
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Sodium

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Sodium mEq/L 145-153 151-158 136-145 138-147 149-157 143-156

 

Increased
Artifact Water loss from blood sample
Iatrogenic Hypertonic fluid administration
Water deficit Excess water loss: panting, fever, hyperventilation, diabetes insipidus
Inadequate intake: water deprivation, primary adipsia/hypodipsia
Hypotonic fluid loss:
Renal: osmotic/chemical diuresis, renal failure
Non-renal: GI, cutaneous, third space losses
Salt gain Excess intake: salt poisoning (with concurrent water deprivation)
↑ Renal retention: hyperaldosteronism

 

Decreased
Artifact Lipemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperosmolar states
Iatrogenic Diuretic therapy, hypotonic fluid administration
Volume overload (hypervolemic hyponatremia) CHF, hepatic disease, nephrotic syndrome, advanced renal failure
Hypertonic fluid loss (hypovolemic hyponatremia) Renal: Proximal renal tubule dysfunction, hypoadrenocortisim, hypoaldosteronism, osmotic diuresis (diabetes mellitus)
Non-renal: GI (vomiting/diarrhea), cutaneous (equine sweating), third space losses (ruptured or obstructed urinary tract, peritonitis, chylothorax)
Other Intracellular translocation (muscle injury), decreased intake (anorexia)

 

Interpret with: Electrolytes (K+, Cl), urinalysis, HCT, protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, osmolality

 

 

Potassium

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Potassium mEq/L 4.1-5.6 4.0-5.9 2.6-4.5 3.8-5.2 4.2-5.9 4.2-6.0

 

Increased
Artifact Serum K+ > plasma K+ (release from WBC, platelets); anticoagulant (K+ EDTA), hemolysis (horses, camelids, some cattle, some breeds of dogs, pigs), leukocytosis (release from cells with clotting), age (> foals), IV line contamination
Iatrogenic IV fluids or IV line contamination with K+ supplementation (rare unless renal disease)
Transcellular shifts
(ICF → ECF)
Hyperkalemic myopathy, tissue necrosis, exercise, hypertonicity (diabetes mellitus), uroperitoneum (foals), hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (transient)
↓ Renal excretion Anuric/oliguric renal failure, chronic kidney disease (horses), uroabdomen, hypoadrenocorticism, hypoaldosteronism

 

Decreased
Artifact Lipemia
↓ Intake Anorexia (large animals, especially foals; small animals – rare)
Transcellular shifts (ECF→ICF) Primary respiratory or primary metabolic alkalosis, hyperinsulinemia, catecholamine release, endotoxemia
↑ Loss GI: vomiting, abomasal stasis, outflow obstruction/torsion, diarrhea and choke (horses, cattle);
Third space loss/sequestration
Cutaneous: sweating (horses)
Renal: ↑ aldosterone, ↑ distal tubular flow rate, renal tubular disease,

 

Interpret with: Electrolytes, UN, creatinine, urinalysis, bicarbonate, AG, blood gas analysis

 

 

Chloride

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Chloride mEq/L 105-116 113-123 96-105 92-102 106-116 102-116

 

Increased
Artifact Lipemia, anticonvulsant medication (KBr, zonisamide)
Iatrogenic Administration of Clcontaining fluids (hypertonic saline, ammonium chloride)
Metabolic acidosis
(i) Bicarbonate loss (Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis)
 – Primary GI loss/sequestration of Cl/HCl: Vomiting (biliary, pancreatic fluids), secretory diarrhea sequestration (e.g.. ileum in horses), diarrhea (horse), loss of saliva (ruminants, horse),
Renal loss: Proximal renal tubular acidosis, Addison’s disease
Cutaneous loss: sweating (horses)
 – Secondary Compensatory response to a primary respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation or hypocapnea – hypoxemia, primary pulmonary disease, pain)
(ii) Bicarbonate consumption (Titration acidosis) Production of noncarbonic acid: lactic acidosis, ketosis (diabetes mellitus)
↓ Excretion of noncarbonic acid: sulfates, phosphates
Renal failure, toxicity (ethylene glycol, salicylate, methanol)

 

Decreased
Iatrogenic Administration of sodium-rich fluids, loop diuretics (e.g. spironolactone)
Loss of Cl > Na+ GI: loss of Cl rich fluid (vomiting, ptyalism; gastric reflux, diarrhea, gastroduodenal ulcers in horses)
Sequestration of Cl rich fluid: displaced abomasum, abomasal atony, gastric rupture, GDV, ileus (horses)
Renal: renal disease (especially cattle)
Cutaneous: sweating (horses)

 

Interpret with: Electrolytes (Na+, K+), Urinalysis, bicarbonate, AG, blood gas analysis,

 

 

Bicarbonate

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Bicarbonate mEq/L 15-25 15-24 25-32 24-32 22-34 17-27

 

Increased
Artifact Muscle injury in large animals (rare)
Iatrogenic Administration of HCO3 containing solutions
Metabolic alkalosis
(i) Primary GI loss/sequestration of Cl/H+: Vomiting (small animals), gastric reflux (horse), abomasal atony/torsion/displacement
Cutaneous loss: Sweating (horses)
Renal loss: loop diuretics (e.g. furosemide), hypokalemia
(ii) Secondary Compensation for primary respiratory acidosis (decreased ventilation/gas exchange, general anesthesia)

 

Decreased
Artifact Aged samples, heparin over-dilution, venous stasis
Iatrogenic Ammonium chloride administration (hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis)
Metabolic acidosis
(i) Bicarbonate loss  (Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis)
   – Primary GI loss/sequestration of Cl/HCl: Vomiting (biliary, pancreatic fluids), secretory diarrhea sequestration (e.g.. ileum in horses), diarrhea (horse), loss of saliva (ruminants, horse),
Renal loss: Proximal renal tubular acidosis, Addison’s disease
Cutaneous loss: sweating (horses)
   – Secondary Compensation for primary respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation – hypoxemia, primary pulmonary disease, pain)
(ii) Bicarbonate consumption (Titration acidosis)
Production of noncarbonic acid: lactatic acidosis, ketosis (diabetes mellitus)
↓ Excretion of noncarbonic acid: sulfates, phosphates
Renal failure, toxicity (ethylene glycol, salicylate, methanol)

 

Interpret with: Blood gas analysis – Anion gap, electrolytes (corr Cl, K+), urinalysis, glucose, urea, creatinine

 

Anion Gap

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Anion Gap mEq/L 17-27 18-25 11-17 18-24 14-21 17-29

 

Increased
Artifact Artifactual ↑ of sodium/potassium or, ↓ chloride/bicarbonate
Iatrogenic Sodium-containing drugs (e.g. penicillin, sodium salts)
Metabolic acidosis (titration) Accumulation of non-carbonic acid (e.g. lactate, ketones, uremic acids), toxins (methanol, salicylate, ethylene glycol, metaldehyde)
Alkalemia Stimulates lactic acid production
↑ Albumin Dehydration, increased albumin production
↓ “Unmeasured” cations Ionized calcium, ionized magnesium

 

Decreased
Artifact Falsely high chloride/bicarbonate, anticonvulsant (KBr), pyruvate and LDH accumulation (muscle injury)
Iatrogenic Bicarbonate-rich fluid administration
Acidemia Organic acid accumulation (e.g. lactic, citric, uric acid)
↓ Albumin Hypoalbuminemia (e.g. dehydration)
↑ “Unmeasured” cations Ionized magnesium/calcium (unlikely), neoplasia (e.g. multiple myeloma),

 

Interpret with: Bicarbonate, electrolytes, blood gas analysis, urinalysis

 

Glucose

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Glucose mg/dL 63-118 64-144 71-113 53-76 102-149 37-141

 

Increased
Physiologic Post-prandial, “stress”, pregnancy
Iatrogenic Drugs inducing insulin resistance (xylazine, detomidine, propanalol, megestrol acetate, ketamine)
Sustained hyperglycemia Diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism, acromegaly, hyperglucagonemia, hyperpituitarism/pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (horses), pheochromocytoma
Transient hyperglycemia Hyperthryoidism (cats), acute pancreatitis, sepsis

 

Decreased
Artifact Bacterial contamination,  serum not separated from clot
Iatrogenic Insulin administration
↓ Production Glycogen storage diseases (e.g. Pompe’s disease, von Gierke’s disease)
Juvenile hypoglycemia
Hepatic disease
↓ Intake Starvation, malabsorption, high grain diet (horse)
↑ Use Idiopathic hypoglycemia of hunting dogs and endurance horses
Bovine ketosis (Type 1), ovine pregnancy toxemia
Exertional hypoglycemia
↑ Insulin secretion Neoplasia: insulinoma, mesenchymal tumors (leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, hepatic and renal tumors)
Xylitol (dogs)
↓ Counter-regulatory hormones Hypoadrenocorticism, sepsis

 

Interpret with: Urinalysis, fructosamine, ketones, hepatic enzymes

 

Urea Nitrogen

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Urea Nitrogen mg/dL 10-32 16-36 11-28 7-18 10-30 9-35

 

Increased
Artifact Ammonia contamination; artifactual ↓ of creatinine (e.g. severe icterus)
↑ Protein catabolism Fever, burns, corticosteroid administration, starvation, exercise
↑ Protein digestion Hemorrhage into the GI system, high protein diet
↓ GFR Pre-renal, renal, post-renal causes

 

Decreased
Physiologic Greyhounds (normal/↓)
↓ Protein intake,
protein anabolism
Diet, young animals
↓ Production Hepatic disease
↑ Excretion Causes of polyuria (e.g. hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus)

 

Interpret with: Creatinine, urinalysis, total protein, albumin, HCT, electrolytes, anion gap, calcium, phosphate, hepatic tests

 

Creatinine

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Creatinine mg/dL 0.6-1.4 0.6-2.0 0.6-1.6 0.5-0.9 1.0-2.4 0.4-0.9

 

Increased
Artifact Presence of acetoacetate, glucose, vitamin C, uric acid, pyruvate, cephalosporins and amino acids in sample
Physiologic Foals, heavily-muscled horses, Greyhounds, post-protein meal
↓ GFR Pre-renal, renal, post-renal causes
Myoglobin release Myoglobinuric nephrosis

 

Decreased
Physiologic ↓ Muscle mass, pregnancy (↑GFR)
↓ Production Starvation, cachexia, liver cirrhosis (↓ creatine production)
↑ GFR Portosystemic shunts

 

Interpret with: Urea, hepatic enzymes, CK, LDH

 

Uric acid

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Uric Acid mg/dL 0.1-0.3 0-0.5 0.1-0.4 0.7-2.1 n/a n/a

 

Increased
Artifact Dehydation, fecal urate contamination
Physiologic Post-prandial
Renal disease ↓ GFR, Loss of >70% functional renal capacity
↑ Deposition Articular gout

 

Interpret with:

 

Bilirubin

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Total Bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.2 0-0.2 0.5-2.5 0.1-0.2 0-0.1 0.1-0.2
Direct Bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.1 0-0.1 0.1-0.3 0-0.1 0 – 0 0.0-0.1
Indirect Bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.2 0-0.2 0.3-2.3 0-0.1 0-0.1 0.1-0.2

 

Increased
Physiologic Fasting (horses), anorexia (cattle, occasionally cats), neonates (especially foals); both indirect primarily
↑ Production
(indirect)
Heme breakdown (hemolysis, muscle injury, ineffective erythropoeisis)
↓ Hepatic uptake
(primarily indirect)
Hepatic insufficiency (hepatocellular disease , portosystemic shunts)
↓ Hepatic conjugation
(primarily indirect)
Hepatic insufficiency
↓ Hepatic excretion Cholestasis:
obstructive (intra/extra-hepatic) e.g. hepatocellular swelling, extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (cholelithiasis, gallbladder mucocele, neoplasia, parasites)
functional inflammation: infectious (E. coli, Staph intermedius), sepsis
↓ transport of conjugated bilirubin
Inherited Southdown sheep (defect in bilirubin uptake), Corriedale sheep (Dubin-Johnson syndrome)

 

Interpret with: Hepatocellular and cholestatic enzymes, urinalysis, cbc, cholesterol

 

ALP

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
ALP U/L 17-111 13-83 68-260 29-111 18-113 38-862

 

Increased
Physiologic Age, breed (Siberian Huskies – benign familial hyperphosphatasemia; Scottish Terriers), endogenous corticosteroid release
Iatrogenic Anticonvulsants (e.g. phenobarbital, primidone), exogenous corticosteroid (dogs), thyroxine
Hepatobiliary Cholestasis (structural/functional), neoplasia, acute hepatocellular injury, hepatic lipidosis
Endocrine Hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism (dogs), hyperthyroidism (cats), hyperparathryoidism
Bone Hyperparathyroidism, fracture healing, hyperthroidism (cats)
Neoplasia Mammary neoplasia (dogs), osteosarcoma

 

Interpret with: Other hepatic enzymes

 

GGT

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
GGT U/L 0-6 0-2 8-29 9-50 8-35 24-66

 

Increased
Physiologic Neonates – colostral GGT (except horses); Breed (donkeys, burros)
Iatrogenic Anticonvulsants (phenobarbital, phenytoin, mysoline), exogenous corticosteroids (dog)
Hepatobiliary Biliary hyperplasia, cholestasis, pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity, fascioliasis, cholangiohepatitis and cholethiasis (horses),
Renal Proximal tubular injury (↑ urinary GGT; serum ↑ is rare)
Toxins Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (e.g. Senecio, Crotalaria, Heliotropium), aflatoxins, aminoglycosides, carbon tetrachloride, xylitol (dogs)
Neoplasia Primary hepatic, pancreatic, renal adenocarcinoma
Miscellaneous Abomasal displacement, dorsal displacement of large colon (horse)

 

Interpret with: Bilirubin, other hepatic enzymes

 

ALT

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
ALT/ P5P U/L 20-98 35-176 n/a n/a n/a n/a

 

Increased
Artifact Hemolysis
Iatrogenic Anticonvulsants (e.g. phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone), corticosteroids, , cephalosporin, cyclosporin, isoniazide
Hepatic Bile duct obstruction, neoplasia, trauma
Muscular Ischemic myopathy (cats), muscular dystrophy (dogs), trauma
Toxins Tetracycline (cats), thiacetarsamide, xylitol (dogs), acetaminophen

 

Interpret with: Bilirubin, Hepatic enzymes

 

AST

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
AST/P5P U/L 14-51 15-44 199-374 61-162 119-286 60-147

 

Increased
Artifact Hemolysis (in vitro) from delayed serum separation
Iatrogenic Anticonvulsants, imidocarb (goats)
Physiologic Exercise (horses)
Hepatic FIP (cats) – pyogranulomatous hepatitis, aflatoxins,
Muscular Myopathies, muscle trauma, rhabdomyolysis, white muscle disease (vitamin E-selenium deficiency), Clostridial myositis, muscular dystrophy

 

Interpret with: ALT, ALP, total bilirubin, GGT, bile acids and/or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH)

 

SDH

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
SDH U/L 0-8 0-10 0-11 12-50 0-7 26-76

 

Increased
Artifact Delayed analysis
Toxin Doxycycline toxicosis (calves), carbon tetrachloride
Hepatic Hepatocellular injury, Fasciolosis?
 Horse, cattle

 

Interpret with: Electrolytes, UN, creatinine, urinalysis, bicarbonate, AG, blood gas analysis

 

GLDH

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
GLDH U/L 2-11 0-4 1-8 11-83 3-19 n/a

 

Increased
Physiologic Neonates (foals)
Hepatic Hepatocellular injury
Note: Very sensitive in dogs, very specific in avian, rats (for acute injury)

 

Interpret with:

 

CK

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
CK U/L 48-261 73-388 142-548 76-376 29-120 113-446

 

Increased
Artifact Hemolysis, muscle penetration during venipuncture
Physiologic Age (puppies), post-exercise (horse), anorexia (cats)
Iatrogenic Intramuscular injection, especially irritant drugs (e.g. tetracycline), pentobarbitone (hamsters), post-surgery
CK-1(MM) isotype Skeletal muscle isoenzyme: exertional rhabdomyolysis, polymyositis, vitamin E-selenium deficiency, snake bite poisoning, post-shipping, recumbent  and “downer” cows
CK2-(MB) isotype Cardiac muscle: doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity
CK3-(BB) isotype Brain: Thiamine deficiency (ruminants), cerebrocortical necrosis
Nutritional White muscle disease (vitamin E-selenium deficiency), polioencephalomalacia
Inherited Muscular dystrophy, (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, malignant hyperthermia,
Toxins Monensin, gossypol, ricin, myotoxin (snake-bite)

 

Interpret with:

 

LDH

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
LDH U/L 30-236 57-451 160-453 699-1381 99-433 221-403

 

Increased
Artifact Hemolysis, serum concentrations > plasma
Physiologic Exercise
Hepatic ↑ LDH1 & LDH2 (cattle, sheep), ↑ LDH5 (horse, small animals)
Muscle ↑ LDH5 (ruminants, horse): exertional rhabdomyolysis, white muscle disease, cardiac muscle lesions (rats)
Neoplasia Bovine lymphoma

 

Interpret with: ALT, SDH, CK

 

Total Protein

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Total Protein g/dL 5.3-7.0 6.3-8.3 5.7-7.7 6.9-8.6 5.7-7.2 6.2-8.0

 

Increased
Most common Hemoconcentration
↓ Blood volume Hemoconcentration – dehydration
↑ Protein production Chronic inflammation
Neoplasia Monoclonal gammopathy

 

Decreased
↑ Blood volume Overhydration
↑ Loss Protein-losing glomerulopathy, protein-losing enteropathy, severe hemorrhage, exudative dermatopathies;
Sequestration (third space losses)
↓ Production Malnutrition/starvation, chronic hepatic disease, acute phase response, malabsorption
Inflammation

 

Interpret with: Albumin, globulin, PCV, urinalysis (urine protein:creatinine), urea nitrogen, creatinine, hematology

 

Albumin

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Albumin g/dL 3.1-4.2 2.8-4.2 3.0-3.7 3.1-4.1 2.9-4.3 3.0-4.0

 

Increased
Artifact Heparinized plasma > serum
Physiologic Hemoconcentration

 

Decreased
 Iatrogenic Excessive fluid administration
 ↓ Production Malnutrition/starvation, chronic hepatic disease, acute phase response, malabsorption
 ↑ Loss Protein-losing glomerulopathy, protein-losing enteropathy, severe hemorrhage, exudative dermatopathies, sequestration (third space losses), catabolism

 

Interpret with: Total protein, globulins, PCV, urinalysis, urea, creatinine, liver function tests,

 

Globulin

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Globulin g/dL 1.9-3.6 2.7-4.9 2.4-4.4 3.1-5.4 2.1-3.1 3.0-4.6

 

Increased
Iatrogenic Corticosteroids (dogs)
↑ Production α-globulins: Acute phase reactant response, nephrotic syndrome
β-globulins: Inflammation (acute, chronic), active liver disease, suppurative dermatopathies, nephrotic syndrome
γ-globulins: Antigenic stimulation, polyclonal gammopathy, monoclonal gammopathy
Neoplasia Multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, extramedullary plasmacytoma, Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia,
Infection Heartworm, FIPV, Ehrlichia canis infection, lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis and amyloidosis

 

Decreased
Inherited Primary severe combined immunodeficiency (Basset hounds, Cardigan Welsh Corgis, Dachshunds and Arabian [horses])
Agammaglobulinemia (foals),
IgM deficiency (Dobermans, Arabians, Paso Fino, Quarterhorses and Thoroughbreds),
IgA deficiency (Sharpei, Beagle, Airedale terriers, and German Shepherd Dogs),
Transient hypogammaglobulinemia (Arabian horses, dogs)
Physiologic Failure of passive transfer
Infectious Virus: FeLV, FIV, Canine Distemper virus, Aleutian mink disease virus, BVD
Parasites: Toxoplasmosis, Theileriasis, Eperythrozoon wenyonii, Demodex canis
Bacteria: Mycoplasma pseudotuberculosis (Johne’s disease)
Neoplasia Lymphoma (cattle, horse)
Idiopathic Young llamas – ill-thrift,

 

Interpret with: Albumin, PCV, leukogram, etc

 

 

A/G Ratio

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
A/G 0.9-2.1 0.6-1.6 0.8-1.4 0.8-1.4 1.0-1.9 0.7-1.2

 

Increased
Decreased ↑ suspicion of FIP

 

Interpret with: Total protein

 

Calcium

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Calcium mg/dL 9.3-11.4 9.1-10.9 10.9-12.8 8.9-10.9 8.2-10.1 8.5-10.6

 

Increased
Most common causes Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy; hypoadrenocorticism (dogs); chronic/acute renal disease (horses); iatrogenic (cattle); hypercalcemia is uncommon in cats
Physiologic Age (puppies)
Iatrogenic Thiazide diuretics, calcium borogluconate administration, strontium salts
↑ Bone mobilization ↑ PTH: Primary hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid adenoma – common, parathyroid hyperplasia, malignant parathyroid carcinoma – rare)
↑ PTHrP: Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (e.g. dogs – anal sac adenocarcinomas, lymphomas, squamous cell carcinomas; cats – lymphoma, pulmonary carcinoma; horse – multiple myeloma)
Localized osteolysis
↑ Intestinal absorption Hypervitaminosis D: ingestion of cholecalciferol rodenticides and plants (e.g. Cestrum diurnum, Solanum sp.), excessive dietary supplementation, granulomatous disease (e.g. fungal, parasitic), humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (macrophage and lymphocyte origin e.g. histiocytic sarcoma)
Hypoadrenocorticism (dogs)
↓ Renal excretion Renal disease, hypoadrenocorticism, primary hyperparathyroidism, humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy
↑ Protein binding Hyperalbuminemia
Idiopathic Idiopathic hypercalcemia (cats), endometritis and retained fetus (dogs),

 

Decreased
Most common causes Low albumin; renal disease (dogs, cats); pancreatitis (dogs); gastrointestinal disease (colic in horses); milk fever (cattle)
Artifact EDTA, citrate anticoagulants
Iatrogenic Sodium phosphate enemas, exogenous calcitonin, gadodiamide
↓ Protein binding Hypoalbuminemia
Abnormal PTH Primary hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathryoidism, PTH resistance, ↓ secretion (from low magnesium),
↓ Absorption Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (Bran disease)
Hypovitaminosis D
Renal secondary hypoparathyroidism (dogs, cats, cattle)
Toxicosis: oxalate-containing plants (e.g. Kikuku grass, rhubarb, purslane, sorrel, dock, foxtail grass)
GI disease: Horses (colic, enterocolitis, endotoxemia); protein-losing enteropathy (dogs)
Hyperadrenocorticism (dogs)
↑ Loss Renal loss
↑ calcitonin: pancreatitis, hypercalcitonism, ethylene glycol toxicosis, alkalemia from primary metabolic alkalosis,
Pregnancy, parturient or lactational hypocalcemia/eclampsia
Excess sweating
Idiopathic Sepsis, idiopathic hypocalcemia (foals), equine myopathy, cantharidin toxicosis, acute renal injury

 

Interpret with: Albumin, ionized calcium, phosphate, urea nitrogen, creatinine, urinalysis

 

Phosphate

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Phosphate mg/dL 2.9-5.2 2.7-6.2 2.1-4.2 4.6-7.3 3.4-7.8 4.5-7.9

 

Increased
Artifact Hemolysis, anticoagulants (EDTA, oxalate, citrate), monoclonal gammopathy
Physiologic Post-prandial, age (young animals)
Iatrogenic Phosphate enemas (especially cats)
↑ Intake Hypervitaminosis D: ingestion of cholecalciferol rodenticides and plants (e.g. Cestrum diurnum, Solanum sp.), excessive dietary supplementation, granulomatous disease (e.g. fungal, parasitic), humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (macrophage and lymphocyte origin e.g. histiocytic sarcoma)
Excessive dietary phosphate: nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
Transcellular shifts Acute tumor lysis syndrome, severe skeletal muscle injury
↓ Excretion ↓ GFR, hypoparathyroidism, acromegaly, hyperthyroidism; post-renal obstruction, bladder rupture (small animals)

 

Decreased
Artifact Monoclonal immunoglobulins (causing precipitation out of solution)
Iatrogenic Diuretics, corticosteroids, phosphate-binding antacids
↓ intestinal absorption Enteral tube feeding (cats), hypovitaminosis D (rare cause)
Transcellular shifts Alkalemia due to respiratory alkalosisInsulin or glucose, hypothermia
↑ Loss Renal: renal disease, hyperparathyroidism, urolithiasis (ruminants), diuresis (osmotic or solute), phosphatonins, hyperadrenocorticism (dogs)
GI: diarrhea, vomiting
Idiopathic Hepatic lipidosis (cat)

 

Interpret with: Calcium, urea nitrogen, creatinine,

 

Magnesium

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Magnesium mEq/L 1.4-2.2 1.6-2.3 1.3-2.3 1.6-2.4 1.7-2.4 1.5-2.2

 

Increased
Artifact Hemolysis (except in cattle, horses), severe lipemia and icterus, postmortem blood samples
Physiologic Post-partum (cattle)
Iatrogenic Excessive supplementation of fluids, diet and oral supplements (e.g. antacids)
↑ Absorption Exogenous magnesium administration, intestinal hypomotility
↓ Excretion ↓ GFR (e.g. chronic kidney disease, urinary tract obstruction), hypocalcemia, hypoadrenocorticism, oliguric/anuric renal failure
Release from cells Skeletal muscle, soft tissue necrosis
↑ PTH

 

Decreased 
Artifact Citrate, oxalate, fluoride anticoagulants
Physiologic Age (Mg absorption ↓ after 6 weeks of age)
Iatrogenic Administration of Mg-poor fluids or TPN without adequate Mg supplementation (small animals); nephrotoxic drugs (cisplatin, aminoglycosides, amphotericin B)
↓ Albumin Hypoalbuminemia
↓ Intake Anorexia (especially lactating dairy cows), high potassium diet, pastures fertilized with nitrates, ammonia, sulphates and potassium
Translocation into cells Insulin, hypothermia, sepsis (horses)
Excess loss GI: malabsorption, chronic diarrhea, saliva loss (e.g. choke, rabies), hyperaldosteronism (rare)
Renal: diuresis, hyperthyroidism, primary hypoparathyroidism, acidosis, ketonuria, renal tubular injury
Cutanenous: sweating (horses)
Hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, phosphate depletion

 

Interpret with: Calcium, phosphate, potassium, albumin, glucose, urinalysis

 

Cholesterol

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Cholesterol mg/dL 138-332 66-317 69-130 69-130 17-88 51-126

 

Increased 
Artifact Hemolysis
↑ Production Post-prandial, nephrotic syndrome (amyloidosis, immune-complex glomerulonephritis – Lyme disease, Ehrlichia
↓ Lipolysis, abnormal processing Nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism
Inherited Familial hypercholesterolemia (Briards, Rottweilers, Shetland Sheepdogs, Dobermans), hyperlipidemia of Miniature Schnauzers, hyperchylomicronemia of cats
Idiopathic Cholestasis, diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, excessive negative energy imbalance (starvation, anorexia; horses, camels), hyperadrenocorticism, adrenal hyperplasia, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, pheochromocytoma

 

Decreased
Artifact Icterus
↓ Absorption Malbsorption, maldigestion (protein-losing enteropathies, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency)
↓ Production Chronic liver disease, synthetic liver failure, portosystemic shunts, multiple myeloma (cats),
Altered metabolism Inflammatory cytokines
↑ Lipoprotein uptake Upregulation of LDL-receptors on cells (peripheral tissues and liver) from rapidly proliferating tumor cells
Idiopathic Hypoadrenocorticism

 

Interpret with: Glucose, urinalysis, urea nitrogen, creatinine, hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, triglycerides,

 

Triglycerides

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Triglycerides mg/dL 22-125 25-133 14-77 5-19 6-50 15-57

 

Increased
Most common causes Acute pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus, post-prandial, hyperlipidemia (horses)
Physiologic Post-prandial,
Iatrogenic Corticosteroids
Inherited Hypertriglyceridemia in Miniature Schnauzers, inherited hyperchylomicronemia (young cats)
↑ Lipolysis Excesssive negative energy imbalance: obesity, pregnancy, stress (e.g. transport) and lactation (horses); pregnancy toxemia, ketosis (camelids)
↓ Lipoprotein lipase activity Pancreatitis
Idiopathic, multiple mechanisms Hepatic lipidosis, hypothyroidism, cholestasis, diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism,

 

Decreased No diagnostic relevance
lactation mares?

 

Interpret with: Cholesterol

 

Amylase

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Amylase U/L 377-1220 532-2008 n/a n/a 732-1602 11-73

 

Increased 
Pancreatic cell injury Acute pancreatitis
↓ Renal excretion ↓ GFR, chronic renal insufficiency
Idiopathic Intestinal disease or obstruction
Most common causes Pancreatitis, renal disease

 

Interpret with: Lipase

 

Lipase

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Lipase-DCL U/L 78-765 5-222 12-39 1-35 9-173 n/a

 

Increased 
Iatrogenic Corticosteroids
Pancreatic cell injury Acute pancreatitis
GI disease Peritonitis, gastritis, bowel obstruction, visceral manipulation (laparotomy), hepatic disease and neoplasia
Renal ↓ GFR, renal disease

 

Interpret with: Amylase

 

Iron

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Iron µg/dL 78-214 53-145 75-206 83-205 82-194 98-187

 

Increased 
Artifact Hemolysis
Physiologic Random transient variations
Iatrogenic Dexamethasone (cattle), corticosteroids (dogs, horses), repeated blood transfusions
Intracellular release Necrotizing hepatitis
↑ RBC turnover Hemolytic anemia, disordered/abnormal erythropoiesis (e.g. primary myelodysplasia and ineffective erythropoiesis)
↓ Erythropoeisis Bone marrow aplasia/hypoplasia
Iron overload syndrome Mynah birds, lemurs, Saler/Saler-cross cattle

 

Decreased
Artifact Anticoagulant contamination (e.g. EDTA)
Physiologic Random transient fluctuations
Iatrogenic Dexamethasone (cattle)
↓ Absorption/Intake Acidosis, hepcidin, copper deficiency, zinc excess, inadequate dietary content, intestinal disease, malnutrition (cattle)
Sequestration Mild transient injury/trauma, inflammation, portosystemic shunts. neoplasia
Loss External hemorrhage
GI: intestinal parasites (e.g. hookworms, whipworms, Haemonchus contortus),  gastrointestinal neoplasia, and vascular ectasia or angiodysplasia
Urinary
Reproductive
Respiratory

 

Interpret with: TIBC, % Saturation

 

TIBC

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
TIBC µg/dL 270-496 226-432 284-456 335-499 228-411 249-386

 

Increased
Artifact Anticoagulants with chelating agents (e.g. EDTA, oxalate, fluoride)
↓ Iron Pigs, horses and cattle; unreliable in dogs, cats or camelids
Idiopathic Necrotizing hepatitis (dogs)

 

Decreased
↓ Production Acute phase response, hepatic insufficiency, portosystemic shunts, ↓ protein intake
Loss of transferrin Protein-losing nephropathy, protein-losing enteropathy, burns
Transferrin catabolism Negative energy states
Most common cause Acute inflammation

 

Interpret with: Iron, % Saturation, Albumin, Total protein

 

Saturation

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Saturation % 23-61 24-55 15-49 20-51 29-60 31-62

 

Increased
↓ Transferrin Loss or decreased production (e.g. protein-losing states)
Idiopathic Hemolytic anemia, non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia or pure red cell aplasia, ineffective erythropoiesis, hepatic necrosis, corticosteroids (dogs, horses)

 

Decreased
↓ Iron (see iron)

 

Interpret with:

 

Bile Acids

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Bile Acids (fast/random) µmol/L 0-13 0-13 0-12 16-151 5-54 n/a
Bile Acids (postprandial) µmol/L 0-30 0-25 n/a n/a n/a n/a

 

Increased
Physiologic ↓ feed intake (horses); postprandial; spontaneous gallbladder contraction
↓ Clearance from portal circulation Hepatic insufficiency, portosystemic shunts (congenital/acquired)
↓ Excretion Cholestasis: obstructive or functional

 

Decreased
Physiologic Prolonged fasting (dogs, cats)
Enterohepatic Intestinal malabsorption, rapid gastrointestinal transit

 

Interpret with: Bilirubin, ALP, ammonia, hepatic enzymes

 

Cholinesterase

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Cholinesterase U/L 1895-5240 736-3016 2684-5889 53-126 242-603 n/a

 

Increased 
Artifact Hemolysis, citrate anticoagulant

 

Decreased
Iatrogenic Physostigmine
Toxins Organophosphate or carbamate toxicity, cyanotoxins

 

Interpret with:

 

BHB

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
BHB mg/dL 0-1 0-2 2-5 n/a 0-1 n/a

 

Increased
Ketosis Bovine ketosis (cattle): starvation, diabetes mellitus, lactation demands, displaced abomasum, hepatic lipidosis, subclinical ketosis, clinical (pregnancy) ketosis, alimentary ketosis (spoiled silage with excess butyric acid)
Pregnancy toxemia (small ruminants)
Clinical ketosis (camelids): stress, anorexia, pregnancy (pregnancy toxemia), lactation, hepatic lipidosis, insulin resistance
Diabetic ketoacidosis (small animals): starvation, diabetes mellitus, lactating bitches

 

Interpret with: Glucose, NEFA, triglycerides, AST, Urea Nitrogen, Albumin

 

NEFA

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
NEFA mEq/L 0.1-1.2 0.13-1.32 0.01-0.12 n/a 0.02-0.26 n/a

 

Increased
Artifact Serum separator tubes, non-cooled samples, delayed sample testing
Physiologic Exercise, stress, collection before daily feeding
Negative energy inbalance Food deprivation, pregnant and lactating dairy cows; hepatic lipidosis (camelids)
Idiopathic & Other Diabetes mellitus, hepatic lipidosis, overfeeding and obesity, food deprivation, post-exercise

 

Interpret with: BHB, Glucose

 

Fructosamine

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Fructosamine Umol/L 222-348 174-294 235-332 n/a 251-431 n/a

 

Increased
Persistent hyperglycemia Diabetes Mellitus
Idiopathic Hypothyroidism (humans)

 

Decreased
Artifact Hypoproteinemia
Persistent hypoglycemia Insulinoma (dogs)
Idiopathic Hyperthyroidism (cats)

 

Interpret with: Glucose?
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