Quick test interpretation

 
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Sodium

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Sodium mEq/L 145-153 151-158 136-145 138-147 149-157 143-156
 
Increased
Artifact Water loss from blood sample
Iatrogenic Hypertonic fluid administration
Water deficit Excess water loss: panting, fever, hyperventilation, diabetes insipidus Inadequate intake: water deprivation, primary adipsia/hypodipsia Hypotonic fluid loss: Renal: osmotic/chemical diuresis, renal failure Non-renal: GI, cutaneous, third space losses
Salt gain Excess intake: salt poisoning (with concurrent water deprivation) ↑ Renal retention: hyperaldosteronism
 
Decreased
Artifact Lipemia, hyperproteinemia, hyperosmolar states
Iatrogenic Diuretic therapy, hypotonic fluid administration
Volume overload (hypervolemic hyponatremia) CHF, hepatic disease, nephrotic syndrome, advanced renal failure
Hypertonic fluid loss (hypovolemic hyponatremia) Renal: Proximal renal tubule dysfunction, hypoadrenocortisim, hypoaldosteronism, osmotic diuresis (diabetes mellitus) Non-renal: GI (vomiting/diarrhea), cutaneous (equine sweating), third space losses (ruptured or obstructed urinary tract, peritonitis, chylothorax)
Other Intracellular translocation (muscle injury), decreased intake (anorexia)
 
Interpret with: Electrolytes (K+, Cl-), urinalysis, HCT, protein, urea nitrogen, creatinine, osmolality
   

Potassium

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Potassium mEq/L 4.1-5.6 4.0-5.9 2.6-4.5 3.8-5.2 4.2-5.9 4.2-6.0
 
Increased
Artifact Serum K+ > plasma K+ (release from WBC, platelets); anticoagulant (K+ EDTA), hemolysis (horses, camelids, some cattle, some breeds of dogs, pigs), leukocytosis (release from cells with clotting), age (> foals), IV line contamination
Iatrogenic IV fluids or IV line contamination with K+ supplementation (rare unless renal disease)
Transcellular shifts (ICF → ECF) Hyperkalemic myopathy, tissue necrosis, exercise, hypertonicity (diabetes mellitus), uroperitoneum (foals), hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (transient)
↓ Renal excretion Anuric/oliguric renal failure, chronic kidney disease (horses), uroabdomen, hypoadrenocorticism, hypoaldosteronism
 
Decreased
Artifact Lipemia
↓ Intake Anorexia (large animals, especially foals; small animals - rare)
Transcellular shifts (ECF→ICF) Primary respiratory or primary metabolic alkalosis, hyperinsulinemia, catecholamine release, endotoxemia
↑ Loss GI: vomiting, abomasal stasis, outflow obstruction/torsion, diarrhea and choke (horses, cattle); Third space loss/sequestration Cutaneous: sweating (horses) Renal: ↑ aldosterone, ↑ distal tubular flow rate, renal tubular disease,
 
Interpret with: Electrolytes, UN, creatinine, urinalysis, bicarbonate, AG, blood gas analysis
   

Chloride

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Chloride mEq/L 105-116 113-123 96-105 92-102 106-116 102-116
 
Increased
Artifact Lipemia, anticonvulsant medication (KBr, zonisamide)
Iatrogenic Administration of Cl-containing fluids (hypertonic saline, ammonium chloride)
Metabolic acidosis
(i) Bicarbonate loss (Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis)
 - Primary GI loss/sequestration of Cl-/HCl: Vomiting (biliary, pancreatic fluids), secretory diarrhea sequestration (e.g.. ileum in horses), diarrhea (horse), loss of saliva (ruminants, horse), Renal loss: Proximal renal tubular acidosis, Addison's disease Cutaneous loss: sweating (horses)
 - Secondary Compensatory response to a primary respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation or hypocapnea - hypoxemia, primary pulmonary disease, pain)
(ii) Bicarbonate consumption (Titration acidosis) Production of noncarbonic acid: lactic acidosis, ketosis (diabetes mellitus) ↓ Excretion of noncarbonic acid: sulfates, phosphates Renal failure, toxicity (ethylene glycol, salicylate, methanol)
 
Decreased
Iatrogenic Administration of sodium-rich fluids, loop diuretics (e.g. spironolactone)
Loss of Cl- > Na+ GI: loss of Cl- rich fluid (vomiting, ptyalism; gastric reflux, diarrhea, gastroduodenal ulcers in horses) Sequestration of Cl- rich fluid: displaced abomasum, abomasal atony, gastric rupture, GDV, ileus (horses) Renal: renal disease (especially cattle) Cutaneous: sweating (horses)
 
Interpret with: Electrolytes (Na+, K+), Urinalysis, bicarbonate, AG, blood gas analysis,
   

Bicarbonate

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Bicarbonate mEq/L 15-25 15-24 25-32 24-32 22-34 17-27
 
Increased
Artifact Muscle injury in large animals (rare)
Iatrogenic Administration of HCO3 containing solutions
Metabolic alkalosis
(i) Primary GI loss/sequestration of Cl-/H+: Vomiting (small animals), gastric reflux (horse), abomasal atony/torsion/displacement Cutaneous loss: Sweating (horses) Renal loss: loop diuretics (e.g. furosemide), hypokalemia
(ii) Secondary Compensation for primary respiratory acidosis (decreased ventilation/gas exchange, general anesthesia)
 
Decreased
Artifact Aged samples, heparin over-dilution, venous stasis
Iatrogenic Ammonium chloride administration (hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis)
Metabolic acidosis
(i) Bicarbonate loss  (Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis)
   - Primary GI loss/sequestration of Cl-/HCl: Vomiting (biliary, pancreatic fluids), secretory diarrhea sequestration (e.g.. ileum in horses), diarrhea (horse), loss of saliva (ruminants, horse), Renal loss: Proximal renal tubular acidosis, Addison's disease Cutaneous loss: sweating (horses)
   - Secondary Compensation for primary respiratory alkalosis (hyperventilation - hypoxemia, primary pulmonary disease, pain)
(ii) Bicarbonate consumption (Titration acidosis) Production of noncarbonic acid: lactatic acidosis, ketosis (diabetes mellitus) ↓ Excretion of noncarbonic acid: sulfates, phosphates Renal failure, toxicity (ethylene glycol, salicylate, methanol)
 
Interpret with: Blood gas analysis - Anion gap, electrolytes (corr Cl-, K+), urinalysis, glucose, urea, creatinine
 

Anion Gap

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Anion Gap mEq/L 17-27 18-25 11-17 18-24 14-21 17-29
 
Increased
Artifact Artifactual ↑ of sodium/potassium or, ↓ chloride/bicarbonate
Iatrogenic Sodium-containing drugs (e.g. penicillin, sodium salts)
Metabolic acidosis (titration) Accumulation of non-carbonic acid (e.g. lactate, ketones, uremic acids), toxins (methanol, salicylate, ethylene glycol, metaldehyde)
Alkalemia Stimulates lactic acid production
↑ Albumin Dehydration, increased albumin production
↓ "Unmeasured" cations Ionized calcium, ionized magnesium
 
Decreased
Artifact Falsely high chloride/bicarbonate, anticonvulsant (KBr), pyruvate and LDH accumulation (muscle injury)
Iatrogenic Bicarbonate-rich fluid administration
Acidemia Organic acid accumulation (e.g. lactic, citric, uric acid)
↓ Albumin Hypoalbuminemia (e.g. dehydration)
↑ "Unmeasured" cations Ionized magnesium/calcium (unlikely), neoplasia (e.g. multiple myeloma),
 
Interpret with: Bicarbonate, electrolytes, blood gas analysis, urinalysis
 

Glucose

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Glucose mg/dL 63-118 64-144 71-113 53-76 102-149 37-141
 
Increased
Physiologic Post-prandial, "stress", pregnancy
Iatrogenic Drugs inducing insulin resistance (xylazine, detomidine, propanalol, megestrol acetate, ketamine)
Sustained hyperglycemia Diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism, acromegaly, hyperglucagonemia, hyperpituitarism/pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (horses), pheochromocytoma
Transient hyperglycemia Hyperthryoidism (cats), acute pancreatitis, sepsis
 
Decreased
Artifact Bacterial contamination,  serum not separated from clot
Iatrogenic Insulin administration
↓ Production Glycogen storage diseases (e.g. Pompe's disease, von Gierke’s disease) Juvenile hypoglycemia Hepatic disease
↓ Intake Starvation, malabsorption, high grain diet (horse)
↑ Use Idiopathic hypoglycemia of hunting dogs and endurance horses Bovine ketosis (Type 1), ovine pregnancy toxemia Exertional hypoglycemia
↑ Insulin secretion Neoplasia: insulinoma, mesenchymal tumors (leiomyoma, leiomyosarcoma, hepatic and renal tumors) Xylitol (dogs)
↓ Counter-regulatory hormones Hypoadrenocorticism, sepsis
 
Interpret with: Urinalysis, fructosamine, ketones, hepatic enzymes
 

Urea Nitrogen

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Urea Nitrogen mg/dL 10-32 16-36 11-28 7-18 10-30 9-35
 
Increased
Artifact Ammonia contamination; artifactual ↓ of creatinine (e.g. severe icterus)
↑ Protein catabolism Fever, burns, corticosteroid administration, starvation, exercise
↑ Protein digestion Hemorrhage into the GI system, high protein diet
↓ GFR Pre-renal, renal, post-renal causes
 
Decreased
Physiologic Greyhounds (normal/↓)
↓ Protein intake, protein anabolism Diet, young animals
↓ Production Hepatic disease
↑ Excretion Causes of polyuria (e.g. hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus)
 
Interpret with: Creatinine, urinalysis, total protein, albumin, HCT, electrolytes, anion gap, calcium, phosphate, hepatic tests
 

Creatinine

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Creatinine mg/dL 0.6-1.4 0.6-2.0 0.6-1.6 0.5-0.9 1.0-2.4 0.4-0.9
 
Increased
Artifact Presence of acetoacetate, glucose, vitamin C, uric acid, pyruvate, cephalosporins and amino acids in sample
Physiologic Foals, heavily-muscled horses, Greyhounds, post-protein meal
↓ GFR Pre-renal, renal, post-renal causes
Myoglobin release Myoglobinuric nephrosis
 
Decreased
Physiologic ↓ Muscle mass, pregnancy (↑GFR)
↓ Production Starvation, cachexia, liver cirrhosis (↓ creatine production)
↑ GFR Portosystemic shunts
 
Interpret with: Urea, hepatic enzymes, CK, LDH
 

Uric acid

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Uric Acid mg/dL 0.1-0.3 0-0.5 0.1-0.4 0.7-2.1 n/a n/a
 
Increased
Artifact Dehydation, fecal urate contamination
Physiologic Post-prandial
Renal disease ↓ GFR, Loss of >70% functional renal capacity
↑ Deposition Articular gout
 
Interpret with:
 

Bilirubin

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Total Bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.2 0-0.2 0.5-2.5 0.1-0.2 0-0.1 0.1-0.2
Direct Bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.1 0-0.1 0.1-0.3 0-0.1 0 - 0 0.0-0.1
Indirect Bilirubin mg/dL 0-0.2 0-0.2 0.3-2.3 0-0.1 0-0.1 0.1-0.2
 
Increased
Physiologic Fasting (horses), anorexia (cattle, occasionally cats), neonates (especially foals); both indirect primarily
↑ Production (indirect) Heme breakdown (hemolysis, muscle injury, ineffective erythropoeisis)
↓ Hepatic uptake (primarily indirect) Hepatic insufficiency (hepatocellular disease , portosystemic shunts)
↓ Hepatic conjugation (primarily indirect) Hepatic insufficiency
↓ Hepatic excretion Cholestasis: - obstructive (intra/extra-hepatic) e.g. hepatocellular swelling, extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (cholelithiasis, gallbladder mucocele, neoplasia, parasites) - functional inflammation: infectious (E. coli, Staph intermedius), sepsis ↓ transport of conjugated bilirubin
Inherited Southdown sheep (defect in bilirubin uptake), Corriedale sheep (Dubin-Johnson syndrome)
 
Interpret with: Hepatocellular and cholestatic enzymes, urinalysis, cbc, cholesterol
 

ALP

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
ALP U/L 17-111 13-83 68-260 29-111 18-113 38-862
 
Increased
Physiologic Age, breed (Siberian Huskies - benign familial hyperphosphatasemia; Scottish Terriers), endogenous corticosteroid release
Iatrogenic Anticonvulsants (e.g. phenobarbital, primidone), exogenous corticosteroid (dogs), thyroxine
Hepatobiliary Cholestasis (structural/functional), neoplasia, acute hepatocellular injury, hepatic lipidosis
Endocrine Hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism (dogs), hyperthyroidism (cats), hyperparathryoidism
Bone Hyperparathyroidism, fracture healing, hyperthroidism (cats)
Neoplasia Mammary neoplasia (dogs), osteosarcoma
 
Interpret with: Other hepatic enzymes
 

GGT

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
GGT U/L 0-6 0-2 8-29 9-50 8-35 24-66
 
Increased
Physiologic Neonates - colostral GGT (except horses); Breed (donkeys, burros)
Iatrogenic Anticonvulsants (phenobarbital, phenytoin, mysoline), exogenous corticosteroids (dog)
Hepatobiliary Biliary hyperplasia, cholestasis, pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity, fascioliasis, cholangiohepatitis and cholethiasis (horses),
Renal Proximal tubular injury (↑ urinary GGT; serum ↑ is rare)
Toxins Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (e.g. Senecio, Crotalaria, Heliotropium), aflatoxins, aminoglycosides, carbon tetrachloride, xylitol (dogs)
Neoplasia Primary hepatic, pancreatic, renal adenocarcinoma
Miscellaneous Abomasal displacement, dorsal displacement of large colon (horse)
 
Interpret with: Bilirubin, other hepatic enzymes
 

ALT

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
ALT/ P5P U/L 20-98 35-176 n/a n/a n/a n/a
 
Increased
Artifact Hemolysis
Iatrogenic Anticonvulsants (e.g. phenobarbital, phenytoin, primidone), corticosteroids, , cephalosporin, cyclosporin, isoniazide
Hepatic Bile duct obstruction, neoplasia, trauma
Muscular Ischemic myopathy (cats), muscular dystrophy (dogs), trauma
Toxins Tetracycline (cats), thiacetarsamide, xylitol (dogs), acetaminophen
 
Interpret with: Bilirubin, Hepatic enzymes
 

AST

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
AST/P5P U/L 14-51 15-44 199-374 61-162 119-286 60-147
 
Increased
Artifact Hemolysis (in vitro) from delayed serum separation
Iatrogenic Anticonvulsants, imidocarb (goats)
Physiologic Exercise (horses)
Hepatic FIP (cats) - pyogranulomatous hepatitis, aflatoxins,
Muscular Myopathies, muscle trauma, rhabdomyolysis, white muscle disease (vitamin E-selenium deficiency), Clostridial myositis, muscular dystrophy
 
Interpret with: ALT, ALP, total bilirubin, GGT, bile acids and/or sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH)
 

SDH

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
SDH U/L 0-8 0-10 0-11 12-50 0-7 26-76
 
Increased
Artifact Delayed analysis
Toxin Doxycycline toxicosis (calves), carbon tetrachloride
Hepatic Hepatocellular injury, Fasciolosis?
 Horse, cattle
 
Interpret with: Electrolytes, UN, creatinine, urinalysis, bicarbonate, AG, blood gas analysis
 

GLDH

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
GLDH U/L 2-11 0-4 1-8 11-83 3-19 n/a
 
Increased
Physiologic Neonates (foals)
Hepatic Hepatocellular injury
Note: Very sensitive in dogs, very specific in avian, rats (for acute injury)
 
Interpret with:
 

CK

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
CK U/L 48-261 73-388 142-548 76-376 29-120 113-446
 
Increased
Artifact Hemolysis, muscle penetration during venipuncture
Physiologic Age (puppies), post-exercise (horse), anorexia (cats)
Iatrogenic Intramuscular injection, especially irritant drugs (e.g. tetracycline), pentobarbitone (hamsters), post-surgery
CK-1(MM) isotype Skeletal muscle isoenzyme: exertional rhabdomyolysis, polymyositis, vitamin E-selenium deficiency, snake bite poisoning, post-shipping, recumbent  and "downer" cows
CK2-(MB) isotype Cardiac muscle: doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity
CK3-(BB) isotype Brain: Thiamine deficiency (ruminants), cerebrocortical necrosis
Nutritional White muscle disease (vitamin E-selenium deficiency), polioencephalomalacia
Inherited Muscular dystrophy, (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dystrophin-deficient muscular dystrophy, hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, malignant hyperthermia,
Toxins Monensin, gossypol, ricin, myotoxin (snake-bite)
 
Interpret with:
 

LDH

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
LDH U/L 30-236 57-451 160-453 699-1381 99-433 221-403
 
Increased
Artifact Hemolysis, serum concentrations > plasma
Physiologic Exercise
Hepatic ↑ LDH1 & LDH2 (cattle, sheep), ↑ LDH5 (horse, small animals)
Muscle ↑ LDH5 (ruminants, horse): exertional rhabdomyolysis, white muscle disease, cardiac muscle lesions (rats)
Neoplasia Bovine lymphoma
 
Interpret with: ALT, SDH, CK
 

Total Protein

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Total Protein g/dL 5.3-7.0 6.3-8.3 5.7-7.7 6.9-8.6 5.7-7.2 6.2-8.0
 
Increased
Most common Hemoconcentration
↓ Blood volume Hemoconcentration - dehydration
↑ Protein production Chronic inflammation
Neoplasia Monoclonal gammopathy
 
Decreased
↑ Blood volume Overhydration
↑ Loss Protein-losing glomerulopathy, protein-losing enteropathy, severe hemorrhage, exudative dermatopathies; Sequestration (third space losses)
↓ Production Malnutrition/starvation, chronic hepatic disease, acute phase response, malabsorption
Inflammation
 
Interpret with: Albumin, globulin, PCV, urinalysis (urine protein:creatinine), urea nitrogen, creatinine, hematology
 

Albumin

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Albumin g/dL 3.1-4.2 2.8-4.2 3.0-3.7 3.1-4.1 2.9-4.3 3.0-4.0
 
Increased
Artifact Heparinized plasma > serum
Physiologic Hemoconcentration
 
Decreased
 Iatrogenic Excessive fluid administration
 ↓ Production Malnutrition/starvation, chronic hepatic disease, acute phase response, malabsorption
 ↑ Loss Protein-losing glomerulopathy, protein-losing enteropathy, severe hemorrhage, exudative dermatopathies, sequestration (third space losses), catabolism
 
Interpret with: Total protein, globulins, PCV, urinalysis, urea, creatinine, liver function tests,
 

Globulin

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Globulin g/dL 1.9-3.6 2.7-4.9 2.4-4.4 3.1-5.4 2.1-3.1 3.0-4.6
 
Increased
Iatrogenic Corticosteroids (dogs)
↑ Production α-globulins: Acute phase reactant response, nephrotic syndrome β-globulins: Inflammation (acute, chronic), active liver disease, suppurative dermatopathies, nephrotic syndrome γ-globulins: Antigenic stimulation, polyclonal gammopathy, monoclonal gammopathy
Neoplasia Multiple myeloma, lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, extramedullary plasmacytoma, Waldenström’s macroglobulinemia,
Infection Heartworm, FIPV, Ehrlichia canis infection, lymphoplasmacytic enteritis, lymphoplasmacytic dermatitis and amyloidosis
 
Decreased
Inherited Primary severe combined immunodeficiency (Basset hounds, Cardigan Welsh Corgis, Dachshunds and Arabian [horses]) Agammaglobulinemia (foals), IgM deficiency (Dobermans, Arabians, Paso Fino, Quarterhorses and Thoroughbreds), IgA deficiency (Sharpei, Beagle, Airedale terriers, and German Shepherd Dogs), Transient hypogammaglobulinemia (Arabian horses, dogs)
Physiologic Failure of passive transfer
Infectious Virus: FeLV, FIV, Canine Distemper virus, Aleutian mink disease virus, BVD Parasites: Toxoplasmosis, Theileriasis, Eperythrozoon wenyonii, Demodex canis Bacteria: Mycoplasma pseudotuberculosis (Johne's disease)
Neoplasia Lymphoma (cattle, horse)
Idiopathic Young llamas - ill-thrift,
 
Interpret with: Albumin, PCV, leukogram, etc
   

A/G Ratio

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
A/G 0.9-2.1 0.6-1.6 0.8-1.4 0.8-1.4 1.0-1.9 0.7-1.2
 
Increased
Decreased ↑ suspicion of FIP
 
Interpret with: Total protein
 

Calcium

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Calcium mg/dL 9.3-11.4 9.1-10.9 10.9-12.8 8.9-10.9 8.2-10.1 8.5-10.6
 
Increased
Most common causes Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy; hypoadrenocorticism (dogs); chronic/acute renal disease (horses); iatrogenic (cattle); hypercalcemia is uncommon in cats
Physiologic Age (puppies)
Iatrogenic Thiazide diuretics, calcium borogluconate administration, strontium salts
↑ Bone mobilization ↑ PTH: Primary hyperparathyroidism (parathyroid adenoma - common, parathyroid hyperplasia, malignant parathyroid carcinoma - rare) ↑ PTHrP: Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (e.g. dogs - anal sac adenocarcinomas, lymphomas, squamous cell carcinomas; cats - lymphoma, pulmonary carcinoma; horse - multiple myeloma) Localized osteolysis
↑ Intestinal absorption Hypervitaminosis D: ingestion of cholecalciferol rodenticides and plants (e.g. Cestrum diurnum, Solanum sp.), excessive dietary supplementation, granulomatous disease (e.g. fungal, parasitic), humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (macrophage and lymphocyte origin e.g. histiocytic sarcoma) Hypoadrenocorticism (dogs)
↓ Renal excretion Renal disease, hypoadrenocorticism, primary hyperparathyroidism, humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy
↑ Protein binding Hyperalbuminemia
Idiopathic Idiopathic hypercalcemia (cats), endometritis and retained fetus (dogs),
 
Decreased
Most common causes Low albumin; renal disease (dogs, cats); pancreatitis (dogs); gastrointestinal disease (colic in horses); milk fever (cattle)
Artifact EDTA, citrate anticoagulants
Iatrogenic Sodium phosphate enemas, exogenous calcitonin, gadodiamide
↓ Protein binding Hypoalbuminemia
Abnormal PTH Primary hypoparathyroidism, pseudohypoparathryoidism, PTH resistance, ↓ secretion (from low magnesium),
↓ Absorption Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (Bran disease) Hypovitaminosis D Renal secondary hypoparathyroidism (dogs, cats, cattle) Toxicosis: oxalate-containing plants (e.g. Kikuku grass, rhubarb, purslane, sorrel, dock, foxtail grass) GI disease: Horses (colic, enterocolitis, endotoxemia); protein-losing enteropathy (dogs) Hyperadrenocorticism (dogs)
↑ Loss Renal loss ↑ calcitonin: pancreatitis, hypercalcitonism, ethylene glycol toxicosis, alkalemia from primary metabolic alkalosis, Pregnancy, parturient or lactational hypocalcemia/eclampsia Excess sweating
Idiopathic Sepsis, idiopathic hypocalcemia (foals), equine myopathy, cantharidin toxicosis, acute renal injury
 
Interpret with: Albumin, ionized calcium, phosphate, urea nitrogen, creatinine, urinalysis
 

Phosphate

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Phosphate mg/dL 2.9-5.2 2.7-6.2 2.1-4.2 4.6-7.3 3.4-7.8 4.5-7.9
 
Increased
Artifact Hemolysis, anticoagulants (EDTA, oxalate, citrate), monoclonal gammopathy
Physiologic Post-prandial, age (young animals)
Iatrogenic Phosphate enemas (especially cats)
↑ Intake Hypervitaminosis D: ingestion of cholecalciferol rodenticides and plants (e.g. Cestrum diurnum, Solanum sp.), excessive dietary supplementation, granulomatous disease (e.g. fungal, parasitic), humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (macrophage and lymphocyte origin e.g. histiocytic sarcoma) Excessive dietary phosphate: nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
Transcellular shifts Acute tumor lysis syndrome, severe skeletal muscle injury
↓ Excretion ↓ GFR, hypoparathyroidism, acromegaly, hyperthyroidism; post-renal obstruction, bladder rupture (small animals)
 
Decreased
Artifact Monoclonal immunoglobulins (causing precipitation out of solution)
Iatrogenic Diuretics, corticosteroids, phosphate-binding antacids
↓ intestinal absorption Enteral tube feeding (cats), hypovitaminosis D (rare cause)
Transcellular shifts Alkalemia due to respiratory alkalosisInsulin or glucose, hypothermia
↑ Loss Renal: renal disease, hyperparathyroidism, urolithiasis (ruminants), diuresis (osmotic or solute), phosphatonins, hyperadrenocorticism (dogs) GI: diarrhea, vomiting
Idiopathic Hepatic lipidosis (cat)
 
Interpret with: Calcium, urea nitrogen, creatinine,
 

Magnesium

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Magnesium mEq/L 1.4-2.2 1.6-2.3 1.3-2.3 1.6-2.4 1.7-2.4 1.5-2.2
 
Increased
Artifact Hemolysis (except in cattle, horses), severe lipemia and icterus, postmortem blood samples
Physiologic Post-partum (cattle)
Iatrogenic Excessive supplementation of fluids, diet and oral supplements (e.g. antacids)
↑ Absorption Exogenous magnesium administration, intestinal hypomotility
↓ Excretion ↓ GFR (e.g. chronic kidney disease, urinary tract obstruction), hypocalcemia, hypoadrenocorticism, oliguric/anuric renal failure
Release from cells Skeletal muscle, soft tissue necrosis
↑ PTH
 
Decreased 
Artifact Citrate, oxalate, fluoride anticoagulants
Physiologic Age (Mg absorption ↓ after 6 weeks of age)
Iatrogenic Administration of Mg-poor fluids or TPN without adequate Mg supplementation (small animals); nephrotoxic drugs (cisplatin, aminoglycosides, amphotericin B)
↓ Albumin Hypoalbuminemia
↓ Intake Anorexia (especially lactating dairy cows), high potassium diet, pastures fertilized with nitrates, ammonia, sulphates and potassium
Translocation into cells Insulin, hypothermia, sepsis (horses)
Excess loss GI: malabsorption, chronic diarrhea, saliva loss (e.g. choke, rabies), hyperaldosteronism (rare) Renal: diuresis, hyperthyroidism, primary hypoparathyroidism, acidosis, ketonuria, renal tubular injury Cutanenous: sweating (horses)
Hypercalcemia, hypokalemia, phosphate depletion
 
Interpret with: Calcium, phosphate, potassium, albumin, glucose, urinalysis
 

Cholesterol

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Cholesterol mg/dL 138-332 66-317 69-130 69-130 17-88 51-126
 
Increased 
Artifact Hemolysis
↑ Production Post-prandial, nephrotic syndrome (amyloidosis, immune-complex glomerulonephritis - Lyme disease, Ehrlichia
↓ Lipolysis, abnormal processing Nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism
Inherited Familial hypercholesterolemia (Briards, Rottweilers, Shetland Sheepdogs, Dobermans), hyperlipidemia of Miniature Schnauzers, hyperchylomicronemia of cats
Idiopathic Cholestasis, diabetes mellitus, pancreatitis, excessive negative energy imbalance (starvation, anorexia; horses, camels), hyperadrenocorticism, adrenal hyperplasia, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, pheochromocytoma
 
Decreased
Artifact Icterus
↓ Absorption Malbsorption, maldigestion (protein-losing enteropathies, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency)
↓ Production Chronic liver disease, synthetic liver failure, portosystemic shunts, multiple myeloma (cats),
Altered metabolism Inflammatory cytokines
↑ Lipoprotein uptake Upregulation of LDL-receptors on cells (peripheral tissues and liver) from rapidly proliferating tumor cells
Idiopathic Hypoadrenocorticism
 
Interpret with: Glucose, urinalysis, urea nitrogen, creatinine, hepatic enzymes, bilirubin, triglycerides,
 

Triglycerides

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Triglycerides mg/dL 22-125 25-133 14-77 5-19 6-50 15-57
 
Increased
Most common causes Acute pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus, post-prandial, hyperlipidemia (horses)
Physiologic Post-prandial,
Iatrogenic Corticosteroids
Inherited Hypertriglyceridemia in Miniature Schnauzers, inherited hyperchylomicronemia (young cats)
↑ Lipolysis Excesssive negative energy imbalance: obesity, pregnancy, stress (e.g. transport) and lactation (horses); pregnancy toxemia, ketosis (camelids)
↓ Lipoprotein lipase activity Pancreatitis
Idiopathic, multiple mechanisms Hepatic lipidosis, hypothyroidism, cholestasis, diabetes mellitus, hyperadrenocorticism,
 
Decreased No diagnostic relevance
lactation mares?
 
Interpret with: Cholesterol
 

Amylase

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Amylase U/L 377-1220 532-2008 n/a n/a 732-1602 11-73
 
Increased 
Pancreatic cell injury Acute pancreatitis
↓ Renal excretion ↓ GFR, chronic renal insufficiency
Idiopathic Intestinal disease or obstruction
Most common causes Pancreatitis, renal disease
 
Interpret with: Lipase
 

Lipase

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Lipase-DCL U/L 78-765 5-222 12-39 1-35 9-173 n/a
 
Increased 
Iatrogenic Corticosteroids
Pancreatic cell injury Acute pancreatitis
GI disease Peritonitis, gastritis, bowel obstruction, visceral manipulation (laparotomy), hepatic disease and neoplasia
Renal ↓ GFR, renal disease
 
Interpret with: Amylase
 

Iron

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Iron µg/dL 78-214 53-145 75-206 83-205 82-194 98-187
 
Increased 
Artifact Hemolysis
Physiologic Random transient variations
Iatrogenic Dexamethasone (cattle), corticosteroids (dogs, horses), repeated blood transfusions
Intracellular release Necrotizing hepatitis
↑ RBC turnover Hemolytic anemia, disordered/abnormal erythropoiesis (e.g. primary myelodysplasia and ineffective erythropoiesis)
↓ Erythropoeisis Bone marrow aplasia/hypoplasia
Iron overload syndrome Mynah birds, lemurs, Saler/Saler-cross cattle
 
Decreased
Artifact Anticoagulant contamination (e.g. EDTA)
Physiologic Random transient fluctuations
Iatrogenic Dexamethasone (cattle)
↓ Absorption/Intake Acidosis, hepcidin, copper deficiency, zinc excess, inadequate dietary content, intestinal disease, malnutrition (cattle)
Sequestration Mild transient injury/trauma, inflammation, portosystemic shunts. neoplasia
Loss External hemorrhage GI: intestinal parasites (e.g. hookworms, whipworms, Haemonchus contortus),  gastrointestinal neoplasia, and vascular ectasia or angiodysplasia Urinary Reproductive Respiratory
 
Interpret with: TIBC, % Saturation
 

TIBC

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
TIBC µg/dL 270-496 226-432 284-456 335-499 228-411 249-386
 
Increased
Artifact Anticoagulants with chelating agents (e.g. EDTA, oxalate, fluoride)
↓ Iron Pigs, horses and cattle; unreliable in dogs, cats or camelids
Idiopathic Necrotizing hepatitis (dogs)
 
Decreased
↓ Production Acute phase response, hepatic insufficiency, portosystemic shunts, ↓ protein intake
Loss of transferrin Protein-losing nephropathy, protein-losing enteropathy, burns
Transferrin catabolism Negative energy states
Most common cause Acute inflammation
 
Interpret with: Iron, % Saturation, Albumin, Total protein
 

Saturation

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Saturation % 23-61 24-55 15-49 20-51 29-60 31-62
 
Increased
↓ Transferrin Loss or decreased production (e.g. protein-losing states)
Idiopathic Hemolytic anemia, non-regenerative immune-mediated anemia or pure red cell aplasia, ineffective erythropoiesis, hepatic necrosis, corticosteroids (dogs, horses)
 
Decreased
↓ Iron (see iron)
 
Interpret with:
 

Bile Acids

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Bile Acids (fast/random) µmol/L 0-13 0-13 0-12 16-151 5-54 n/a
Bile Acids (postprandial) µmol/L 0-30 0-25 n/a n/a n/a n/a
 
Increased
Physiologic ↓ feed intake (horses); postprandial; spontaneous gallbladder contraction
↓ Clearance from portal circulation Hepatic insufficiency, portosystemic shunts (congenital/acquired)
↓ Excretion Cholestasis: obstructive or functional
 
Decreased
Physiologic Prolonged fasting (dogs, cats)
Enterohepatic Intestinal malabsorption, rapid gastrointestinal transit
 
Interpret with: Bilirubin, ALP, ammonia, hepatic enzymes
 

Cholinesterase

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Cholinesterase U/L 1895-5240 736-3016 2684-5889 53-126 242-603 n/a
 
Increased 
Artifact Hemolysis, citrate anticoagulant
 
Decreased
Iatrogenic Physostigmine
Toxins Organophosphate or carbamate toxicity, cyanotoxins
 
Interpret with:
 

BHB

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
BHB mg/dL 0-1 0-2 2-5 n/a 0-1 n/a
 
Increased
Ketosis Bovine ketosis (cattle): starvation, diabetes mellitus, lactation demands, displaced abomasum, hepatic lipidosis, subclinical ketosis, clinical (pregnancy) ketosis, alimentary ketosis (spoiled silage with excess butyric acid) Pregnancy toxemia (small ruminants) Clinical ketosis (camelids): stress, anorexia, pregnancy (pregnancy toxemia), lactation, hepatic lipidosis, insulin resistance Diabetic ketoacidosis (small animals): starvation, diabetes mellitus, lactating bitches
 
Interpret with: Glucose, NEFA, triglycerides, AST, Urea Nitrogen, Albumin
 

NEFA

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
NEFA mEq/L 0.1-1.2 0.13-1.32 0.01-0.12 n/a 0.02-0.26 n/a
 
Increased
Artifact Serum separator tubes, non-cooled samples, delayed sample testing
Physiologic Exercise, stress, collection before daily feeding
Negative energy inbalance Food deprivation, pregnant and lactating dairy cows; hepatic lipidosis (camelids)
Idiopathic & Other Diabetes mellitus, hepatic lipidosis, overfeeding and obesity, food deprivation, post-exercise
 
Interpret with: BHB, Glucose
 

Fructosamine

Units Canine Feline Equine Bovine Alpaca Caprine
Fructosamine Umol/L 222-348 174-294 235-332 n/a 251-431 n/a
 
Increased
Persistent hyperglycemia Diabetes Mellitus
Idiopathic Hypothyroidism (humans)
 
Decreased
Artifact Hypoproteinemia
Persistent hypoglycemia Insulinoma (dogs)
Idiopathic Hyperthyroidism (cats)
 
Interpret with: Glucose?
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